Gut Microbiome and Its Potential Role in Obesity
Carmia Borek, PhD
PDF
HTML

Keywords

Diet
Microbiome
Obesity
Probiotics
PDF
HTML

Abstract

Obesity has become a major health problem due to its increasing prevalence and its association with chronic disorders that include type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Although obesity is a result of a long-term imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure, dietary-induced alterations in the gut microbiome play an important role in the onset and development of this condition. Human and animal intestines contain trillions of microbes, defined as the gut microbiome or microbiota. The microbiome is largely responsible for the health of the host and varies with diet, host genotype, sex, and age. The normal gut microbiome imparts specific functions in host metabolism, including immunity, maintenance of the intestinal barrier, and protection against pathogens. The composition and activities of the microbiome are altered in obese individuals compared with their lean counterparts. Metabolic changes due to the altered microbiome in obesity include enhanced energy extraction from food, lipogenesis, and insulin resistance. Dietary manipulation of the microbiome to control obesity includes prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics that have been reported to reduce energy storage and lower inflammation and insulin resistance. The development of therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat obesity by microbiome manipulation are being pursued in laboratories and are of growing interest to commercial companies and governments.

PDF
HTML

References

Sirisinha S. The potential impact of gut microbiota on your health: current status and future challenges. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2016; 34:249–64.
Morowitz MJ, Carlisle E, Alverdy JC. Contribution of intestinal bacteria to nutrition and metabolism in the critically ill. Surg Clin North Am. 2011; 9:771–85.
Chakraborti CK. New found link between microbiota and obesity. World J Gasterointest Pathophysiol. 2015; 6:110–9.
Arora T, Bäckhed F. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease: current understanding and future perspectives. J Intern Med. 2016; 280:339–49.
Fändriks L. Roles of the gut in the metabolic syndrome: an overview. J Intern Med. 2017; 281:319–36.
Sonnenburg JL, Bäckhed F. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism. Nature. 2016; 535:56–64.
Bäckhed F, Ding H, Wang T, et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004; 101:15718–23.
Tilg H. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and microbiota: multiple interactions. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010; 44(Suppl 1):S16–8.
Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, et al. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulates metabolism in mice. Science. 2013; 341:1241214.
Ley RE, Bäckhed F, Turnbaugh P, et al. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005; 102:11070–5.
Ley RE, Turnubaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature. 2006; 444:1022–3.
Byrne CS, Chambers ES, Morrison DJ, et al. The role of short chain fatty acids in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Int J Obesity. 2015; 39:1331–8.
Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, et al. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased ­capacity for energy harvest. Nature. 2006; 444:1027–31.
Carmody RN, Gerber GK, Luevano JM Jr, et al. Diet dominates host genotype in shaping the murine gut microbiota. Cell Host Microbe. 2015; 17:72–84.
Le Chatelier E, Nielsen T, Qin J, et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013; 500:541–6.
Jumpertz R, Le DS, Turnbaugh PJ, et al. Energy-balance studies reveal associations between gut microbes, calorie load, and nutrient absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94:58–65.
De Filippo C, Cavalieri D, Di Paola M, et al. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010; 107:14691–6.
Kalliomäki M, Collado MC, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Early differences in fecal microbiota composition may predict overweight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87:534–8.
Suez J, Korem T, Zevi D, et al. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering gut microbiota. Nature. 2014; 514:181–6.
Delzenne NM, Neyrinck AM, Bäckhed F, Cani PD. Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011; 7:639–46.
Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr. 1995; 125:1401–12.
Floch MH. Probiotics and prebiotics. Gastroenterol Hepatol (NY). 2014; 10:680–1.
Fernandes R, do Rosario VA, Mocellin MC, et al. Effects of inulin-type fructans, galacto-oligosacchrides and related symbiotics on inflammatory markers in adult patients with overweight or obesity: a systematic review. Clin Nutr. 2016; 26:1197–206.
Roberfroid M, Gibson GR, Hoyles L, et al. Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits. Br J Nutr. 2010; 104(Suppl 2):S1–63.
Ramirez-Farias C, Slezak K, Fuller Z, et al. Effects of Inulin on the human gut microbiota: stimulation of Bifidobacterium adolencentis and Faecalibarterium prausnitzii. Br J Nutr. 2009; 101:541–50.
Nicolucci AC, Hume MP, Martínez I, et al. Prebiotic reduces body fat and alters intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. Gastroenterology. 2017; 153:711–22.
Kumar SA, Ward LC, Brown L. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high- carbohydrate high-fat diet-fed rats. Br J Nutr. 2016; 116:1502–11.
Corthésy B, Gasins HR, Mercenier A. Cross-talk between probiotic bacteria and the host immune system. J Nutr. 2007; 137(3 Suppl 2):781S–90S.
Orterberg KL, Boutagy NE, McMillan RP, et al. Probiotic supplementation attenuates increase in body mass and fat mass during high fat diet in healthy adults. Obesity. 2015; 23:2364–70.
Chen J, He X, Huang J. Diet effects in gut microbiome and obesity. J Food Sci. 2014; 79:R442–51.
Aronsson L, Huang Y, Parini P, et al. Decreased fat storage by Lactobacillus paracasei is associated with increased levels of angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPL4). PLoS One. 2010; 5:e13087.
Million M, Angelakis E, Armougom F, et al. Comparative meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus species on weight gain in humans and animals. Microb Pathog. 2012; 53:100–8.
Million M, Lagier JC, Yahav D, et al. Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013; 19:305–13.
Ventura M, Sozzi T, Turroni F, et al. The impact of bacteriophages on probiotic bacteria and gut microbiota diversity. Genes Nutr. 2011; 6:205–7.
Vitali B, Ndagijmana M, Cruciani F, et al. Impact of symbiotic food on the gut microbial ecology and metabolic profiles. BMC Microbiol. 2010; 10:4.
Beserra BT, Fernandes R, do Rosario VA, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotic and synbiotic effects on glycemic, insulin concentration and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity. Clin Nutr. 2015; 34:845–58.
Smith LP, Bouter KE, deVos WM, et al. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2013; 145:946–53.
Portune KJ, Benítez-Páez A, Del Pulgar EM, et al. Gut microbiota, diet and obesity related disorders-the good, the bad, and the future challenges. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017; 61:1600252. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201600252.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.