Pulsatilla, Nepeta, and Rauvolfia are important therapeutic agents with nerve-calming effects. Although not as strong as anxiolytic drugs, these herbal remedies are gentle and safe treatments for anxiety and insomnia. They can improve sleep, reduce mood swings and irritability, and moderate the stress-induced ‘fight-or-flight’ state. Theoretical concerns regarding adverse combination with alcohol or other psychoactive drugs have not been confirmed by clinical or scientific studies. The onset of depression must be monitored carefully when prescribing Rauvolfia to pre-disposed patients; however, this side effect does not appear to occur as commonly or severely as previously cited in the literature.
Nostro A, Cannatelli MA, Crisafi G, et.al. The effect of Nepeta cataria extract on adherence and enzyme production of Staphylococcus aureus.Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001 Dec; 18(6):583–5.
Abad MJ, Guerra JA, Bermejo P, et.al. Search for antiviral activity in higher plant extracts. Phytother Res. 2000 Dec; 14(8):604–7. 1 .
Grieve M. A Modern Herbal, 1931. Dover Publications, New York, reprinted 1971, 919 pp.
Osterhoudt KC, Lee SK, Callahan J, et.al. Catnip and the alteration of human consciousness. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1997 Dec; 39(6):373–5.
Massoco CO, Silva MR, Gorniak SL, Spinosa MS, Bernardi MM. Behavioral effects of acute and long-term administration of catnip (Nepeta cataria) in mice. Vet Hum Toxicol 1995; 37(6):530–3.
Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Mohammadi A. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2008; 5(2):181–6.
See website: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/ranunculoside.html .
Proctor, William. American Journal of Pharmacy, vol 31, Third Series, Volume 7 , 1859, pages 440–1 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy .
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King’s American Dispensatory, 1898. Reprinted 1983, Eclectic Institute, Sandy, OR, 2 Vols .
Bang SC, Kim Y, Lee JH, Ahn BZ. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Pulsatilla koreana. J Nat Prod 2005; 68(2):268–72.
Martin ML, Ortíz de Urbina AV, Montero MJ, Carrón R, San Román L. Pharmacologic effects of lactones isolated from Pulsatilla alpina subsp. apiifolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988 Dec; 24(2-3):185–91.
Saify ZS, Noor F, Mushtaq N, Dar A. Assessment of Anemone pulsatilla for some biological activities. Pak J Pharm Sci 1998; 11(1):47–53.
Kim YJ, Uyama H. Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the future. Cell Mol Life Sci 2005; 62(15):1707–23.
Lee HS. Tyrosinase inhibitors of Pulsatilla cernua root-derived materials. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(6):1400–03.
Hasegawa T. Tyrosinase-expressing neuronal cell line as in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease. Int J Mol Sci 2010; 11(3):1082–9.
Asanuma M, Miyazaki I, Ogawa N. Dopamine- or L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity: the role of dopamine quinone formation and tyrosinase in a model of Parkinson’s disease. Neurotox Res 2003; 5(3):165–76.
Lee JS, Jeon SM, Park EMet al. Cinnamate supplementation enhances hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense systems in high cholesterol-fed rats. J Med Food 2003; 6(3):183–91.
Pletscher A, Shore PA, Brodie BB. Serotonin as a mediator of reserpine action in brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1956; 116(1):84–9.
Charveron M, Assie MB, Stenger A, Briley M. Benzodiazepine agonist-type activity of raubasine, a Rauvolfia serpentina alkaloid. Eur J Pharmacol 1984; 106(2):313–7.
Baumeister AA, Hawkins MF, Uzelac SM. The myth of reserpine-induced depression: role in the historical development of the monoamine hypothesis. J Hist Neurosci 2003; 12(2):207–20.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.