Hsu E. The history of qing hao in the Chinese materia medica. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006; 100:505–8.
Dhingra V, Rao KV, Narasu ML. Artemisinin: present status and perspectives. Biochem Educ. 1999; 27:105–9.
Wallaart TE, Pras N, Quax WJ. Seasonal variations of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants compared with diploid wild-type. Planta Med. 1999; 65:723–8.
Baraldi R, Isacchi B, Predieri S, et al. Distribution of artemisinin and bioactive flavonoids from Artemisia annua L during plant growth. Biochem Syst Ecol. 2008; 36:340–8.
Luo SD, Ning BM, Hu WY, Xie JL. Studies on peroxides of Artemisia lancea. J Nat Prod. 1991; 54:573–5.
Liersch R, Soicke H, Stehr C, Tüllner HU. Formation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua during one vegetation period. Planta Med. 1986;(5):387–90.
Hsu E. Reflections on the ‘discovery’ of the antimalarial qinghao. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2006; 61(6):666–70.
Woerdenbag HJ, Lugt CB, Pras N. Artemisiaannua L: a source of novel antimalarial drugs. PharmWeekbl [Sci]. 1990; 12(5):169–81.
Meshnick SR. Artemisinin: mechanisms of action, resistance and toxicity. Int J Parasitol. 2002; 32:1655–60.
Shah NK, Schapira A, Juliano JJ, et al. Nonrandomized controlled trial of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with or without primaquine for preventing posttreatment circulation of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013; 57(7):2948–54.
Eziefula AC, Staedke SG, Yeung S, et al. Study protocol for a randomised controlled double-blinded trial of the dose-dependent efficacy and safety of primaquine for clearance of gametocytes in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Uganda. BMJ Open. 2013; 3(3):1.
Arango EM, Upegui YA, Carmona-Fonseca J. Efficacy of different primaquine-based antimalarial regimens against Plasmodium falciparumgametocytemia. Acta Trop. 2012; 122(2):177–82.
Weed S. Healing wise…amazing artemisias. Wise Woman Ezine, 2005.http://www.susunweed.com/herbal_ezine/November05/healingwise.htm [accessed on 15 Dec 2013] .
Liu KCS, Yang SY, Roberts MF, et al. The contribution of flavonoids to the antimalarial activity of Artemisiaannua. Planta Med. 1989; 55(7):654–5.
Elford BC, Roberts MF, Phillipson JD, Wilson RJ. Potentiation of the antimalarial activity of qinghaosu by methoxylated flavones. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987; 81:434–6.
Weathers PJ, Towler MJ. The flavonoids casticin and artemetin are poorly extracted and are unstable in an Artemisia annua tea infusion. Planta Med. 2012; 78(10):1024–6.
Stermitz FR, Scriven LN, Tegos G, Lewis K. Two flavonols from Artemisa annua which potentiate the activity of berberine and norfloxacin against a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Planta Med. 2002; 68(12):1140–1.
Kumar S, Gupta AK, Pal Y, Dwivedi SK. In-vivo therapeutic efficacy trial with artemisinin derivative, buparvaquone and imidocarb diproprionate against Babesia equi infection in donkeys. J Vet Med Sci. 2003; 65(11):1171–7.
Ćavar S, Maksimović M, Vidic D, Parić A. Chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Artemisia annua L from Bosnia. Ind Crops Prod. 2012; 37(1):479–85.
de Almeida GF, Horsted K, Thamsborg SM, et al. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance. Vet Parasitol. 2012; 186(3–4):178–87.
Lubbe A, Seibert I, Klimkait T, et al. Ethnopharmacology in overdrive: the remarkable anti-HIV activity of Artemisia annua. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 141(3):854–9.
Islamuddin M, Farooque A, Dwarakanath BS, et al. Extracts of Artemisia annua leaves and seeds mediate programmed cell death inLeishmania donovani. J Med Microbiol. 2012; 61(Pt 12):1709–18.
Miller MJ, Walz AJ, Zhu H, et al. Design, synthesis, and study of a mycobactin-artemisinin conjugate that has selective and potent activity against tuberculosis and malaria. J Am Chem Soc. 2011; 133(7):2076–9.
Utzinger J, N’Goran EK, N’Dri A, et al. Oral artemether for prevention of Schistosoma mansoni infection: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2000; 355(9212):1320–5.
Zhang YQ, Ding W, Zhao ZM, et al. Studies on acaricidal bioactivities of Artemisia annua L extracts against Tetranychus cinnabarinus Bois (Acari: Tetranychidae). Agric Sci China. 2008; 7(5):577–84.
Ali Khan MMA, Jain DC, Bhakuni RS, et al. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Sci. 1991; 75:161–5.
Carrijo de Oliveira T, Oliveira Silva DA, Rostkowska C, et al. Toxoplasma gondii: Effects of Artemisia annua L on susceptibility to infection in experimental models In vitro and in vivo. Exp Parasitol. 2009; 122(3):233–41.
Nibret E, Wink M. Volatile components of four Ethiopian Artemisia species extracts and their in vitro antitrypanosomal and cytotoxic activities.Phytomedicine. 2010; 17(5):369–74.
Ho WE, Peh HY, Chan TK, Wong WS. Artemisinins: Pharmacological actions beyond anti-malarial. Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Dec 5 pii: S0163-7258(13)00229-5 [Epub ahead of print] .
Melillo de Magalhães P, Dupont I, Hendrickx A, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect and modulation of cytochrome P450 activities by Artemisia annuatea infusions in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Food Chem. 2012; 134(2):864–71.
Zhao YG, Wang Y, Guo Z, et al. Dihydroartemisinin ameliorates inflammatory disease by its reciprocal effects on Th and regulatory T cell function via modulating the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. J Immunol. 2012; 189(9):4417–25.
Ryu JC, Park SM, Hwangbo M, et al. Methanol extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance attenuates the expression of inflammatory mediators via NF- κ B inactivation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013:494681.
Koo HN, Hong SH, Jeong HJ, et al. Inhibitory effect of Artemisia capillaris on ethanol-induced cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha) secretion in Hep G2 cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2002; 24(3):441–53.
McIntosh HM, Olliaro P. Artemisinin derivatives for treating uncomplicated malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000256.
Mueller MS, Karhangomba IB, Hirt HM, Wemakor E. The potential of Artemisia annua L as a locally produced remedy for malaria in the tropics: agricultural, chemical and clinical aspects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 73:487–93.
De Donno A, Grassi T, Idolo A, et al. First-time comparison of the In vitro antimalarial activity of Artemisia annua herbal tea and artemisinin.Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012; 106(11):696–700.
Mueller MS, Runyambo N, Wagner I, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a traditional preparation of Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood) in the treatment of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004; 98:318–21.
WHO. Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria, 2nd ed. World Health Organization; 2010.http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241547925/en/index.html (accessed 4 Oct 2014) .
Blanke CH, Naisabha GB, Balema MB, et al. Herba Artemisiae annuae tea preparation compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in adults: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Trop Doct. 2008; 38(2):113–6.
Rasoanaivo P, Wright CW, Willcox ML, Gilbert B. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions. Malar J. 2011; 10(Suppl 1):S4.
Cheah SX, Tay JW, Chan LK, Jaal Z. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 2013; 112(9):3275–82.
Sharma P, Mohan L, Srivastava CN. Growth inhibitory nature of Artemisia annua extract against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). J Asia-Pacific Entomol. 2006; 9(4):389–95.
Bartarya R, Srivastava A, Tonk S, et al. Larvicidal activity of Artemisia annua L callus culture against Anopheles stephensi larvae. J Environ Biol. 2009; 30(3):395–8.
Tonk S, Bartarya R, Maharaj Kumari K, et al. Effective method for extraction of larvicidal component from leaves of Azadirachta indica andArtemisia annua Linn. J Environ Biol. 2006; 27(1):103–5.
Ramazani A, Sardari S, Zakeri S, Vaziri B. In vitro antiplasmodial and phytochemical study of five Artemisia species from Iran and in vivoactivity of two species. Parasitol Res. 2010; 107(3):593–9.
Zafar MM, Hamdard ME, Hameed A. Screening of Artemisia absinthium for antimalarial effects on Plasmodium berghei in mice: a preliminary report. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 30(2):223–6.
Gathirwa JW, Rukunga GM, Njagi ENM, et al. In vitro anti-plasmodial and in vivo anti-malarial activity of some plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria by the Meru community in Kenya. J Nat Med. 2007; 61:261–8.
Kraft C, Jenett-Siems K, Siems K, et al. In vitro antiplasmodial evaluation of medicinal plants from Zimbabwe. Phytother Res. 2001; 17:123–8.
Ene AC, Atawodi SE, Ameh DA, et al. Bioassay-guided fractionation and in vivo antiplasmodial effect of fractions of chloroform extract ofArtemisia maciverae Linn. Acta Trop. 2009; 112(3):288–94.
Dua VK, Verma G, Agarwal DD, et al. Antiprotozoal activities of traditional medicinal plants from the Garhwal region of North West Himalaya, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 136(1):123–8.
Nahrevanian H, Sheykhkanlooye Milan B, Kazemi M, et al. Antimalarial effects of Iranian flora Artemisia sieberi on Plasmodium berghei in vivoin mice and phytochemistry analysis of its herbal extracts. Malar Res Treat. 2012:727032.
Taherkhani M, Rustaiyan A, Nahrevanian H, et al. Comparison of antimalarial activity of Artemisia turanica extract with current drugs in vivo. J Vector Borne Dis. 2013; 50(1):51–6.
Karunamoorthi K, Sabesan S, Jegajeevanram K, Vijayalakshmi J. Role of traditional antimalarial plants in the battle against the global malaria burden. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013; 13(8):521–44.
Challand S, Willcox M. A clinical trial of the traditional medicine Vernonia amygdalina in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. J Altern Complement Med. 2009; 15(11):1231–7.
Willcox ML, Graz B, Falquet J, et al. Argemone mexicana decoction for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007; 101(12):1190–8.
Benoit-Vical F, Valentin A, Da B, et al. N’Dribala (Cochlospermum planchonii) versus chloroquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89:111–4.
Ankrah NA, Kyarko AK, Addo PGA, et al. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of a herbal medicine used for the treatment of malaria. Phytother Res. 2003; 17:697–701.
Bunnag D, Harinasuta T, Looareesuwan S, et al. A combination of quinine, quinidine and cinchonine (LA 40221) in the treatment of chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria in Thailand: Two double-blind trials. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989; 83:66.
Yarnell E, Abascal K. Botanical treatment and prevention of malaria. Part 2–Selected botanicals. Altern Complemen Ther. 2004; 10(5):277–84.
Udeinya IJ, Brown N, Shu EN, et al. Fractions of an antimalarial neem-leaf extract have activities superior to chloroquine, and are gametocytocidal. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006; 100(1):17–22.
Isah AB, Ibrahim YK, Iwalewa EO. Evaluation of the antimalarial properties and standardization of tablets of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) in mice. Phytother Res. 2003; 17(7):807–10.
Becky Andrews, ND, personal communication , 2006.
Udeinya IJ, Mbah AU, Chijioke CP, Shu EN. An antimalarial extract from neem leaves is antiretroviral. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004; 98(7):435–7.
Sharma SK, Dua VK, Sharma VP. Field studies on the mosquito repellent action of neem oil. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1995; 26(1):180–2.
Luong K, Dunkel FV, Coulibaly K, Beckage NE. Potential use of neem leaf slurry as a sustainable dry season management strategy to control the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) in west African villages. J Med Entomol. 2012; 49(6):1361–9.
Nandakumar DN, Nagaraj VA, Vathsala PG, et al. Curcumin-artemisinin combination therapy for malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50(5):1859–60.
Isacchi B, Bergonzi MC, Grazioso M, et al. Artemisinin and artemisinin plus curcumin liposomal formulations: enhanced antimalarial efficacy against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2012; 80(3):528–34.
Aditya NP, Chimote G, Gunalan K, et al. Curcuminoids-loaded liposomes in combination with arteether protects against Plasmodium bergheiinfection in mice. Exp Parasitol. 2012; 131(3):292–9.
Vathsala PG, Dende C, Nagaraj VA, et al. Curcumin-arteether combination therapy of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice prevents recrudescence through immunomodulation. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29442.
Martinelli A, Rodrigues LA, Cravo P. Plasmodium chabaudi: efficacy of artemisinin + curcumin combination treatment on a clone selected for artemisinin resistance in mice. Exp Parasitol. 2008; 119(2):304–7.
Ajayi NA, Ukwaja KN. Possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria in Nigeria: a report of three cases. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2013; 46(4):525–7.
Cheng Q, Kyle DE, Gatton ML. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: A process linked to dormancy? Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2012; 2:249–55.
Lim P, Dek D, Try V, et al. Ex vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs in western, northern, and eastern Cambodia, 2011–2012: association with molecular markers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013; 57(11):5277–83.
Hübner AT. Treatment with Hypericum perforatum L does not trigger decreased resistance in Staphylococcus aureus against antibiotics and hyperforin. Phytomedicine. 2003; 10:206–8.
Nelson RRS. Selection of resistance to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia in Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000; 45:549–50.
Bonati M, Severino F, Bagnati R, et al. Millet-porridge with Artemisia annua as first aid for African children with malaria? J Altern Complemen Med. 2011; 17(4):371–3.
de Ridder S, van der Kooy F, Verpoorte R. Artemisia annua as a self-reliant treatment for malaria in developing countries. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 120(3):302–14.
Zeng Q, Qiu F, Yuan L. Production of artemisinin by genetically-modified microbes. Biotechnol Lett. 2008; 30(4):581–92.
Räth K, Taxis K, Walz G, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of artemisinin after oral intake of a traditional preparation of Artemisia annua L (annual wormwood). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004; 70(2):128–32.
Gordi T, Hai TN, Hoai NM, et al. Use of saliva and capillary blood samples as substitutes for venous blood sampling in pharmacokinetic investigations of artemisinin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000; 56(8):561–6.
Simonsson USH, Jansson B, Hai TN, et al. Artemisinin autoinduction is caused by involvement of cytochrome P450 2B6 but not 2C9. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003; 74:32–43.
Ashton M, Nguyen DS, Nguyen VH, et al. Artemisinin kinetics and dynamics during oral and rectal treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998; 63:482–93.
Ashton M, Hai TN, Sy ND, et al. Artemisinin pharmacokinetics is timedependent during repeated oral administration in healthy male adults.Drug Metab Dispos. 1998; 26:25–7.
Kyu HH, Fernández E. Artemisinin derivatives versus quinine for cerebral malaria in African children: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2009; 87(12):896–904.
Meshnick SR, Taylor TE, Kamchonwongpaisan S. Artemisinin and the antimalarial endoperoxides: From herbal remedy to targeted chemotherapy. Microbiol Rev. 1996; 60:301–15.
Titulaer HA, Zuidema J, Kager PA, et al. The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin after oral, intramuscular and rectal administration to volunteers. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990; 42(11):810–3.
Elfawal MA, Towler MJ, Reich NG, et al. Dried whole plant Artemisia annua as an antimalarial therapy. PLoS One. 2012;20; 7(12):e52746.
van Agtmael MA, Gupta V, van der Graaf CA, van Boxtel CJ. The effect of grapefruit juice on the time-dependent decline of artemether plasma levels in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999; 66(4):408–14.
McGready R, Cho T, Cho JJ, et al. Artemisinin derivatives in the treatment of falciparum malaria in pregnancy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998; 92(4):430–3.
Newton PN, Fernández FM, Plançon A, et al. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia. PLoS Med. 2008; 5(2):e32.
Dondorp AM, Newton PN, Mayxay M, et al. Fake antimalarials in Southeast Asia are a major impediment to malaria control: multinational cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of fake antimalarials. Trop Med Int Health. 2004; 9(12):1241–6.
Paul S, Khanuja SP, Shasany AK, et al. Enhancement of artemisinin content through four cycles of recurrent selection with relation to heritability, correlation and molecular marker in Artemisia annua L. Planta Med. 2010; 76(13):1468–72.
Delabays N, Simonnet X, Gaudin M. The genetics of artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L and the breeding of high yielding cultivars. Curr Med Chem. 2001; 8(15):1795–801.