Rosmarinic acid, a caffeic acid ester and a component of several members of the Lamiaceae family including Rosmarinus officinalis, Perilla spp., and Salvia officinialis, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and is used for the treatment of asthma and reactive airway diseases, allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, otitis media, chemical sensitivity and multiple allergen reactivity. Rosmarinic acid can be used alone or in combination with other agents such as antioxidants, essential fatty acid supplements and other plant derived products. Rosmarinic acid can be administered orally and no adverse drug interactions have been reported. Nausea or mild stomach upset has been reported in sensitive patients in association with its oral intake and it is therefore recommended that Rosmarinic acid be ingested with food. Rosmarinic acid has shown free radical scavenging ability and suppression of allergic immunoglobulin and inflammatory responses of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which may underlie its effectiveness in the treatment of allergic disorders, as demonstrated in clinical trials. Rosmarinic acid is a valuable agent for the treatment of allergic conditions, which is of importance considering the recent increase in the incidence of allergies, asthma and lung diseases associated with airborne pollutants.
Auf’mkolk M, Amir SM, Kubota K, Ingbar SH. The active principles of plant extracts with antithyrotropic activity: oxidation products of derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid. Endocrinology. 1985; 116(5):1677–86.
Konishi Y, Hitomi Y, Yoshida M, Yoshioka E. Pharmacokinetic study of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in rats after oral administration. J Agric Food Chem. 2005; 53(12):4740–6.
Li X, Yu C, Lu Y, et al. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion of depside salts from Salvia miltiorrhiza in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007; 35(2):234–9.
Inoue K, Takano H, Shiga A, et al. Effects of volatile constituents of a rosemary extract on allergic airway inflammation related to house dust mite allergen in mice. Int J Mol Med. 2005; 16(2):315–9.
Khandwala A, Coutts S, Dally-Meade V, et al. RHC 3288 [1-methyl-2(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one-5-yl) benzimidazole] and related compounds. Novel inhibitors of histamine release from rat mast cells and human basophils. Biochem Pharmacol. 1983; 32(22):3325–33.
Khandwala A, Van IR, Coutts S, Dally-Meade V, Youssefyeh RD. Antiallergic activity profile in vitro of RHC 2963 and related compounds. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1983; 5(6):491–502.
Lamaison JL, Petitjean-Freytet C, Carnat A. Medicinal lamiaceae with antioxidant properties, a potential source of rosmarinic acid. Pharm Acta Helv. 1991; 66(7):185–8.
Ito H, Miyazaki T, Ono M, Sakurai H. Antiallergic activities of rabdosiin and its related compounds: chemical and biochemical evaluations.Bioorg Med Chem. 1998; 6(7):1051–6.
van Kessel KP, Kalter ES, Verhoef J. Rosmarinic acid inhibits external oxidative effects of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes. Agents Actions. 1986; 17(3–4):375–6.
Bakirel T, Bakirel U, Keles OU, Ulgen SG, Yardibi H. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 116(1):64–73.
Erkan N, Ayranci G, Ayranci E. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol. Food Chem. 2008; 110(1):76–82.
Oh-hashi K, Takahashi T, Watanabe S, Kobayashi T, Okuyama H. Possible mechanisms for the differential effects of high linoleate safflower oil and high alpha-linolenate perilla oil diets on platelet-activating factor production by rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 1997; 17(3):207–20.
Kamatou GP, Viljoen AM, Gono-Bwalya AB, et al. The in vitro pharmacological activities and a chemical investigation of three South African Salvia species. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 102(3):382–90.
Tepe B. Antioxidant potentials and rosmarinic acid levels of the methanolic extracts of Salvia virgata (Jacq), Salvia staminea (Montbret & Aucher ex Bentham) and Salvia verbenaca (L.) from Turkey. Bioresour Technol. 2008; 99(6):1584–8.
Tepe B, Eminagaoglu O, Akpulat HA, Aydin E. Antioxidant potentials and rosmarinic acid levels of the methanolic extracts of Salvia verticillata (L.) subsp. verticillata and S. verticillata (L.) subsp. amasiaca (Freyn & Bornm.) Bornm. Food Chem. 2007; 100(3):985–9.
Mayer B, Baggio CH, Freitas CS, et al. Gastroprotective constituents of Salvia officinalis L. Fitoterapia. 2009; 80(7):421–6.
Makino T, Furuta Y, Wakushima H, Fujii H, Saito K, Kano Y. Anti-allergic effect of Perilla frutescens and its active constituents. Phytother Res. 2003; 17(3):240–3.
Madden MC, Richards JH, Dailey LA, Hatch GE, Ghio AJ. Effect of ozone on diesel exhaust particle toxicity in rat lung. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2000; 168(2):140–8.
Sanbongi C, Takano H, Osakabe N, et al. Rosmarinic acid inhibits lung injury induced by diesel exhaust particles. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003; 34(8):1060–9.
Sanbongi C, Takano H, Osakabe N, et al. Rosmarinic acid in perilla extract inhibits allergic inflammation induced by mite allergen, in a mouse model. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004; 34(6):971–7.
Takano H, Osakabe N, Sanbongi C, et al. Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004; 229(3):247–54.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.