The Role of Vitamin K2 in Bone and Cardiovascular Health
Tal Friedman, ND


Bone mineral density
Cardiovascular disease
Vitamin K


Vitamin K is an essential nutrient present in plants, animals, and fermented products that plays an important role in a number of biological systems. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin K has potential health benefits far beyond its role in activating coagulation factors. It appears that vitamin K2 (menaquinones) play an important role in optimal bone and cardiovascular health. The central role of vitamin K is the synthesis of γ-carboxyglutamate, which occurs during the vitamin K cycle. The vitamin K cycle allows important proteins, namely osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein, to become activated. These vitamin K‐dependent proteins are of particular importance to bone and cardiovascular health. It has been noted that activated matrix GLA protein may inhibit the formation of vascular calcifications, while activated osteocalcin is implicated in proper bone mineralization and overall calcium homeostasis. Evidence has also shown that a significant number of otherwise healthy persons may be consuming inadequate amounts of menaquinones and are at greater risk for bone and cardiovascular illness. Although more research is needed to elucidate appropriate therapeutic dosage ranges, it would seem that ensuring adequate intake of menaquinone may be of great importance for bone and cardiovascular disease prevention.



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