An Integrative Approach to Hypertension: A Comprehensive Review of Antihypertensive Nutrients and Botanicals
Michelle D Adams, BS, MHSNc
Michael J Gonzalez, NMD, DSc, PhD, FACN
Jorge R Miranda-Massari, PharmD
Jorge Duconge, PhD
Jose R Rodriguez-Gomez, MD, DSc, PhD
Miguel J Berdiel, MD
Kenneth Cintron, MD, FAAOS, ABoIM


Blood pressure
Orthomolecular medicine


Objective: We conducted a comprehensive review of the most current data available on the antihypertensive effects of 29 different nutraceuticals.

Design: In this review, we collected evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses of clinical trials with human subjects that are representative of the general adult population; studies of infants, children, and pregnant women were excluded. Observational studies were included in some cases as supplementary evidence, and in vitro or animal studies were included only for the purpose of explaining hypotensive mechanisms. PubMed served as the primary search engine.

Outcome measures: The efficacy of each nutrient and botanical was demonstrated by a treatment that resulted in a reduction of either systolic or diastolic blood pressure in humans.

Results: All of the reviewed botanical and nutrient supplements, with the exception of French maritime pine bark extract and maitake (Grifola frondosa), have been demonstrated to effectively lower blood pressure in humans with good tolerability.

Conclusions: Current data supporting the use of nutrients and botanicals in the treatment of blood pressure are encouraging.



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