Natural Support for Autoimmune and Inflammatory Disease
Eugene R Zampieron
Ellen J Kamhi
HTML
PDF

Keywords

Arthritis
Autoimmune
Botanicals
Cytokines
Inflammation
Natural therapies
Nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB)
Rheumatology
HTML
PDF

Abstract

Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), involve destruction of healthy cells by the body’s own defensive mechanism. If the immune system’s faux pas is not corrected, the attack can progress to the heart, lungs, and other vital organs. The mechanisms that cause the deregulation of the immune response are not entirely understood. It can be assumed that heavy metal toxicity, leaky gut syndrome, infectious bacteria and parasites, and nutritional imbalances can overburden the body’s immune system, thus deregulating immune signals and responses. Ongoing research investigates the mechanism by which these factors cause the immune system to attack the body’s own tissues. In this paper, we discuss natural therapies that can help regulate the immune system’s aggressive behavior without suppressing or altering its necessary defenses.

HTML
PDF

References

Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 7th Ed., Saunders, ISBN 978-1-4377-1528-6, 2012
Cojobaru M, Cojocaru MI, Silosi I, et al. Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases. Maedica (Buchar). 2011 January; 6(1):45–51.
Lemay M, Murray MA, Davies A, et al. In vitro and ex vivo cyclooxygenase inhibition by a hops extract. Inflammation Res. 2003; 52(Supplement 2):123.
Lukaczer D, Darland G, Tripp M, et al. A pilot trial evaluating Meta050, a proprietary combination of reduced iso-alpha acids, rosemary extract and oleanolic acid in patients with arthritis and fibromyalgia. Phytotherapy Research. 2005; 19(10):864–9.
Konda VR, Desai A, Darland G, et al. Rho iso-alpha acids from hops inhibit the GSK-3/NF- kappa B pathway and reduce inflammatory markers associated with bone and cartilage degradation. Journal of Inflammation-London. 2009; 6:26.
Hall AJ, Babish JG, Darland GK, et al. Safety, efficacy and anti-inflammatory activity of rho iso-alpha-acids from hops. Phytochemistry. 2008; 69(7):1534–47.
Hougee S, Faber J, Sanders A, et al. Selective inhibition of COX-2 bya standardized CO2 extract of Humulus lupulus in vitro and its activity in a mouse model of zymosan-induced arthritis. Planta Med. 2006; 72(3):228–33.
Shouzhong Yang (translator). The Divine Farmer’s Materia Medica, 1998 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
Zhang YX, Sun HX. Immunosuppressive effect of ethanol extract of Artemisia annua on specific antibody and cellular responses of mice against ovalbumin. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009; 31(4):625–30.
Okafor HU, Shu EN, Oguonu T. Therapeutic efficacy and effect on gametocyte carriage of an artemisinin and a non-based combination treatment in children with un-complicated P. falciparum malaria, living in an area with high-level chloroquine resistance. J Trop Pediatr. 2010; 56(6):398–406.
Zhong J. 25 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus treated by integrated traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Chinese Jour of Integrated Trad Chinese Med and Western Med. 1999; 19(1):47–8.
WeiFu Zhao, Zhuang Guokang. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the treatment of discoid lupus erythematosus with qinghao. Jour of Clinical Derm. 1987; 16(3):126.
Lin ZB. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation by Ganoderma lucidum. Journal Pharma Sci. 2005; 99(2):144–53.
Kroes BH, vanUfford HCQ, TinbergendeBoer RL, et al. Modulatory effects of Artemisia annua extracts on human complement, neutrophil oxidative burst and proliferation of T lymphocytes. Phytotherapy Research. 1995; 9(8):551–4.
Zhu Dayuan. Recent advances on the active components in Chinese medicines. Abstracts of Chinese Med. 1987; 1(2):251–66.
Cullingworth CJ. A Note on the Therapeutic Value of Sarsaparilla in Syphilis. Br Med J. 1906; 1(2362):791–2.
Wilson H. Sarsaparilla in Syphilis. Provincial medical journal and retrospect of the medical sciences 1843; 6(134):71.
Mindell E. Herb Bible. 2000. Fireside. New York, USA. 145–6.
Simpson JCE, Williams NE. The ether-soluble constituents of sarsaparilla root. Part II. Jour Chem Soc. 1938;2040–2.
Simpson JCE, Williams NE. The ether-soluble constituents of sarsaparilla root. Part I. Jour Chem Soc. 1937; 733–8.
Yi Y, Cao Z, Yang D, Cao Y, Wu Y, Zhao S. Studies on the chemical constituents of Smilax glabra. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1998 Nov; 33(11):873–5.
Zampieron E, Kamhi E. The natural medicine chest. Second reprint ed. Oyster Bay, NY: Nat Alten Health, Education and Multimedia Inc.
Bensky D, Gamble A. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia medica. Seattle, WA: Eastland Press; 1986.
Golan R. Optimal Wellness: Where Mainstream and Alternative Medicine Meet. 1995. Ballantine. New York.
Sartor RB. Importance of Intestinal Mucosal Immunity and Luminal Bacterial-Cell Wall Polymers in the Etiology of Inflammatory Joint Diseases.Baillieres Clinical Rheuma. 1989; 3(2):223–45.
Garaeva ZS, Safina NA, Tyurin YA, Kuklin VT, Zinkevich OD. Intesitnal dysbiosis as the cause of systemic endotoxemia in psoriatic patients.Vestn Dermatol Venerol. 2007(1):23–7.
Ginsburg I. Role of lipoteichoic acid in infection and inflammation. Lancet Infectious Dis. 2002; 2(3):171–9.
Juhlin L, Shelley WB. Oriented Fibrin Crystallization – Phenomenon of Hypersensitivity to Bacteria in Psoriasis, Vasculitis and Other Dermatoses. Br J Dermatol. 1977; 96(6):577–86.
Xu J, Li X, Zhang P, Li ZL, Wang Y. Antiinflammatory constituents from the roots of Smilax bockii warb. Arch Pharm Res. 2005; 28(4):395–9.
Spelman K, Burns J, Nichols D, Winters N, Ottersberg S, Tenborg M. Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: A review of herbal immunomodulators. Alternative Medicine Review. 2006; 11(2):128–50.
Gadge NB and Jalalpure SS. Natriuretic and saluretic effects of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. root extracts in rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Nov-Dec; 43(6):714–7.
Alam MI, Gomes A. Adjuvant effects and antiserum action potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant ‘sarsaparilla’ (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.). Toxicon. 1998 Oct; 36(10):1423–31.
Kotnis MS, Patel P, Menon SN, Sane RT. Renoprotective effect of Hemidesmus indicus, a herbal drug used in gentamicininduced renal toxicity.Neph. 2004; 9(3):142–52.
Kainthla RP, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF. Effect of Hemidesmus indicus (Anantmool) extract on IgG production and adenosine deaminase activity of human lymphocytes in vitro. Indian Jour Pharma. 2006; 38(3):190–3.
Saravanan N, Nalini N. Hemidesmus indicus protects against ethanol-induced liver toxicity. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2008; 13(1):20–37.
Mary NK, Achuthan CR, Babu BH, Padikkala J. In vitro antioxidant and antithrombotic activity of Hemidesmus indices (L) R.Br. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 87(2-3):187–91.
Yeung H. Handbook of Chinese Herbs: Chinese Materia Medica. Rosmead, CA: Institute of Chinese Medicine; 1983.
Maciocia G. The foundations of Chinese medicine. 2nd ed.: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005.
Vanderhem LG, Vandervliet JA, Bocken CFM, et al. Studies of a New Immunomodulating Agent. Transplantation. 1995; 60(5):438–43.
Bao YX, Wong CK, Li EKM, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of Lingzhi and San-Miao-San supplementation on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2006; 28(2):197–200.
Singh N, Bhalla M, de Jager P, et al. An overview on ashwagandha: a rasayana (rejuvenator) of ayurveda. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011; 8(5 Suppl):208–13.
Bone K. Clinical aplications of Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs. Monographs for the Western Herbal Practitioner. Australia: Phytotherapy Press; 1996.
Dafni A, Yaniv Z. Solanaceae as Medicinal-Plants in Israel. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994; 44(1):11–8.
Alhindawi MK, Alkhafaji SH, Abdulnabi MH. Antigranuloma Activity of Iraqi Withania-Somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 37(2):113–6.
Sumantran VN, Chandwaskar R, Joshi AK, Boddul S, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, et al. The Relationship between Chondroprotective and Antiinflammatory Effects of Withania somnifera Root and Glucosamine Sulphate on Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage In Vitro. Phytotherapy Research. 2008; 22(10):1342–8.
Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, et al. Treatment of Osteoarthritis with a Herbomineral Formulation a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled,Cross-Over Study. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 33(1-2):91–5.
Singh D, Aggarwal A, Maurya R, et al. Withania somnifera inhibits NF-kappa B and AP-1 transcription factors in human peripheral blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells. Phytotherapy Research. 2007; 21(10):905–13.
Khan S, Malik F, Suri KA, Singh J. Molecular insight into the immune up-regulatory properties of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha and identification of Th1 immunostimulatory chemical entity. Vaccine. 2009; 27(43):6080–87.
Huang C, Ma L, Sun L, et al. Immunosuppressive Withanollides from Withania coagulans. Chemistry & Biodiversity. 2009; 6(9):1415–26.
Bisht S, Bhandari S, Bisht NS. Urtica dioica (L): an undervalued, economically important plant. Agri Sci Res Jour. 2012; 2(5):250 – 2.
Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK:European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Mills S., Bone K., Principles and Practice of Phytrotheraphy. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Randall C, Randall H, Dobbs F, Hutton C, Sanders H. Randomized controlled trial of nettle sting for treatment of base-of thumb pain. J R Soc Med. 2000; 93(6):305–9.
Teucher T, Obertreis B, Ruttkowski T, et al. Cytokine secretion in whole blood of healthy volunteers after oral ingestion if an Urtica dioica L leaf extract. Arzneimittel-Forschung/drug Research. 1996; 46(9):906–10.
Riehemann K, Behnke B, Schulze-Osthoff K. Plant extracts from stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), an antirheumatic remedy, inhibit the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappa-B. FEBS Lett. 1999; 442(1):89–94.
Broer J, Behnke B. Immunosuppressant effect of IDS 30, a stinging nettle leaf extract, on myeloid dendritic cells in vitro. J Rheumatol. 2002; 29(4):659–66.
Sasaki H, Nishimura H, Morota T, et al. Immunosuppressive Principles of Rehmannia-Glutinosa-Var-Hueichingensis. Planta Med. 1989; 55(5):458–62.
Zee-Cheng RK. Shi-quan-da-bu-tang (ten significant tonic decoction), SQT. A potent Chinese biological response modifier in cancer immunotherapy, potentiation and detoxification of anticancer drugs.
Zhang R, Li M, Jia Z. Rehmannia glutinosa: Review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 117(2):199–214.
Borchers AT, Keen CL, Cheema GS, et al. The use of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Semi Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 34(1):465–83.
Roberts L, McColl GJ. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: risks and benefits in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Intern Med J. 2004; 34(12):687–93.
Li X, Zhou M, Shen P, et al. Chemical constituents from Rehmannia glutinosa. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011; 36(22):3125–9.
Lee SY, Kim JS, Choi RJ, et al. A new polyoxygenated triterpene and two new aeginetic acid quinovosides from the roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2011; 59(6):742–6.
Kim H, Lee E, Lee S, et al. Effect of Rehmannia glutinosa on immediate type allergic reaction. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1998; 20(4-5):231–40.
Nakada T, Watanabe K, Jin GB, Triizuka K, Hanawa T. Effect of Ninjin-Youei-To on Th1/Th2 type cytokine production in different mouse strains.Am J Chin Med. 2002; 30(2-3):215–23.
Guo X, Wang X, Su W, et al. DNA barcodes for discriminating the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae) and its adulterants. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011; 34(8):1198–203.
Kim EH, Shim B, Kang S, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract via suppression of immune modulators and MAP kinase signaling molecules. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 126(2):320–31.
Cole IB, Cao J, Alan AR, et al. Comparisons of Scutellaria baicalensis, Scutellaria lateriflora and Scutellaria racemosa: genome size, antioxidant potential and phytochemistry. Planta Med. 2008; 74(4):474–81.
Chan E, Wong CY, Wan C, et al. Evaluation of Anti- Oxidant Capacity of Root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, in Comparison with Roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and Panax ginseng CA Meyer. Am J Chin Med. 2010; 38(4):815–27.
Butenko IG, Gladtchenko SV, Galushko, et al. Antiinflammatory Properties and Inhibition of Leukotriene C4 Biosynthesis In-Vitro by Flavonoid Baicalein from Scutellaria-Baicalensis Georgy Roots. Agents Actions. 1993; 39: C49–C51.
Jung SM, Schumacher HR, Kim H, et al. Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D-2 levels. Arth Res & Thera. 2007; 9(4):R64.
Levy RM, Saikovsky R, Shmidt E, et al. Flavocoxid is as effective as naproxen for managing the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee in humans: a short-term randomized, doubleblind pilot study. Nutr Res. 2009; 29(5):298–304.
Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Moreland L, et al. The Safety of Flavocoxid, a Medical Food, in the Dietary Management of Knee Osteoarthritis. Jour of Med Food. 2009; 12(5):1143–8.
Takeshita K, Saisho Y, Kitamura K, et al. Pneumonitis induced by ou- gon (scullcap). Internal Med. 2001; 40(8):764–8.
Huang KC. The pharmacology of Chinese herbs. 1993.
Chevrier MR, Ryan AE, Lee DYW, et al. Boswellia carterii extract inhibits TH1 cytokines and promotes TH2 cytokines in vitro. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005; 12(5):575–80.
Ahmed S, Wang NZ, Lalonde M, et al. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) differentially inhibits interleukin-1 beta-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and-13 in human chondrocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004; 308(2):767–73.
Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44(11):2531–8.
Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber-Officinale) in Rheumatism and Musculoskeletal Disorders. Med Hypotheses. 1992; 39(4):342–8.
Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber-Officinale) and Rheumatic Disorders. Med Hypotheses. 1989; 29(1):25–8.
Biswas SK, McClure D, Jimenez LA, et al. Curcumin induces glutathione biosynthesis and inhibits NF-kappa B activation and interleukin-8 release in alveolar epithelial cells: Mechanism of free radical scavenging activity. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2005; 7(1-2):32–41.
Fiebich BL, Chrubasik S. Effects of an ethanolic Salix extract on the release of selected inflammatory mediators in vitro. Phytomedicine. 2004; 11(2-3):135–8.
Kang HS, Kim YH, Lee CS, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of Stephania tetrandra S Moore on interleukin-6 production and experimental inflammatory disease models. Mediators Inflamm. 1996; 5(4:280–91.
Kwan CY, Achike FI. Tetrandrine and related bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from medicinal herbs: cardiovascular effects and mechanisms of action. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002 Dec; 23(12):1057–68.
Sekiya N, Shimada Y, Niizawa A, et al. Suppressive effects of Stephania tetrandra on the neutrophil function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Phytotherapy Research. 2004; 18(3):247–9.
Lai JH. Immunomodulatory effects and mechanisms of plant alkaloid tetrandrine in autoimmune diseases. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002; 23(12):1093–101.
Niizawa A, Kogure T, Hai LX, et al. Clinical and immunomodulatory effects of Fun-boi, an herbal medicine, on collageninduced arthritis in vivo.Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2003; 21(1):57–62.
Chou WC, Wu CC, Yang PC, et al. Hypovolemic shock and mortality after ingestion of Tripterygium wilfordii hook F.: a case report. Int J Cardiol. 1995 April; 49(2):173–7.
Tao XL, Younger J, Fan FZ, et al. Benefit of an extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F in patients with rheumatoid arthritis – A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46(7):1735–43.
Ji W, Li J, Lin Y, et al. Report of 12 cases of ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with Tripterygium wilfordii. Clin Rheumatol. 2010; 29(9):1067–72.
Setty AR, Sigal LH. Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: Mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects.Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 34(6):773–84.
Lue Y, Sinha Hikim AP, Wang C, Leung A, Baravarian S, Reutrakul V, Sangsawan R, Chaichana S, Swerdloff RS. Triptolide: a potential male contraceptive. J Androl. 1998; 19(4):479–86.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.